No image available for this title

Audio Visual

Sex Trafficking A Global Perspective

Global estimates of human trafficking range from four million to 600,000
victims each year (IOM, 2009). The majority of those individuals are victims
of sex trafficking—revealing the difficulty in data gathering and accountability.
Currently, the U.S. State Department estimates suggest that approximately
70 percent of the victims of sex trafficking are female and approximately
50 percent of the victims are under the age of 18. Victims of sex trafficking may
be forced into prostitution, pornography, prostitution for the military or militia,
spousal prostitution, and prostitution for the sex-tourism industry.
Many nations have either misunderstood the definition of human trafficking
or failed to comprehend the magnitude of incidents of trafficking that
have occurred within their own geographical borders. The United Nations has
defined human trafficking as “the recruitment, transfer, harboring or receipt of
persons by threat or use of force.” This definition is similar to that used by the
U.S. State Department’s Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (henceforth
TVPA) which describes severe forms of trafficking as: “(a) sex trafficking
in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in
which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of
age; or (b) the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining
of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion
for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage,
or slavery” (U.S. Department of State, 2008).
In 2000, with nearly 700,000 individuals trafficked annually, the majority of
whom are women and children, the United States Congress passed the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, P.L. 106–386, also known as
the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA). The TVPA mandated that the
U.S. Secretary of State submit a report on “severe forms of trafficking in persons”
to Congress, by June 1 (Trafficking in Persons Report, 2001). As prescribed
by the TVPA, the State Department produces an annual report which
identifies countries in a tier classification system as a measure of their efforts
to reduce human trafficking.
When the U.S. Congress passed the TVPA in October 2000, they made an
attempt to provide a comprehensive definition of trafficking and to address
the issues relating to human trafficking on the national and international
levels. After the 2000 TVPA, as cases of human trafficking in the United States
and abroad became more prevalent, more legislation was enacted by the Clinton
administration. In 2003 President George W. Bush signed the amended
Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA), which further
strengthened the U.S. government’s response to human trafficking by recognizing
the needs of the victims of human trafficking. In 2005, the TVPRA was
reinforced with proclamations of the United States’ support to end this activity
and a new phrase, “severe forms of trafficking,” was adopted. Thus, the
category of severe forms of trafficking is expected to include the recruitment,
harboring, and so on of a person under one of the following three conditions:
(1) human trafficking for labor, (2) human trafficking for commercial sex
acts, and (3) human trafficking of those under the age of 18. It is also important
to note that through this change in legislation a child under the age of 18
(regardless of country of origin) cannot give his or her consent to be moved
from one country to another; thus, a specific type of human trafficking—
child trafficking—is identified. In addition, the parent or guardian of the child
cannot give consent to the trafficker of that child for his or her movement for
the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation (UNODC, 2006).
This text explored the variants of human sex trafficking for Commercial
Sexual Exploitation (CSE) from a global perspective in terms of its multiple
purposes and its victims. The approach was multidisciplinary with scholars
from the fields of law, sociology, criminology, history and political science
presenting their analyses through the lenses of their respective disciplines.
Chapters provided an assessment of human sex trafficking in geographical
regions as categorized by the U.S. State Department’s Annual Report on Trafficking
in Persons 2008. Geographical regions were: Africa, East Asia and the
Pacific region, Europe, the Near East, South Asia, the Western Hemisphere,
and North America.
As the chapters in the text revealed, while each case of sex trafficking in each
region of the world is unique in its own way, there are some common realities
that one encounters in the sex trafficking of women and children for com-mercial sexual purposes. First, the politics of numbers and the quantification
itself present a problematic that is not easily resolved. The U.S. State Department’s
data gathering often are based on information provided by one or two
local nongovernmental organizations, when government information may
not be forthcoming or sometimes may supplement the host government’s
documentation. Second, certain social issues that are common include the
devaluing of women and the personification of women as objects, gender inequity
as well as global inequalities, a material culture that constantly provides
the myth of glamour and allure that forces girls and women to seek what appears
to be a path to fulfillment. Third, while conflict situations exacerbate the
prevalence of trafficking for CSE, non–conflict related venues for sports and
entertainment also tend to aggravate trafficking incidences.
Trafficking in people is now considered the third most profitable activity for
organized crime as there are more and more cases of individuals being held
against their will either for labor or for sex. Since 2002, the U.S. Department of
Justice has prosecuted sex trafficking offenders and the Department of Health
and Human Services continues to provide medical services, shelter, and counseling
to victims of sex trafficking. To better inform the public, the U.S. Departments
of Labor, Justice, and Health and Human Services have developed brochures
for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to distribute to help identify
victims of sex trafficking and over 200 international anti-trafficking programs
have been funded in countries around the world (McCabe, 2008). On the international
front, there have been multiple efforts to reduce sex trafficking to include
NGOs such as the Global Survival Network and Human Rights Watch and
the International Labour Organization’s commitment to provide assistance to
child victims of sex trafficking (Munro, 2006).
Among the problems that must be acknowledged when addressing human
trafficking is the definition itself. Other problems include that there has been
no method for collecting information on cases and that the involvement of
children as victims of human trafficking is often not recognized nor is there a
single department or agency in the world responsible for collecting data on
human trafficking or those offenses related to trafficking. The 1948 Universal
Declaration of Human Rights states that all human beings are born free, that
no one shall be held in slavery or servitude, and that everyone has the right to
freedom of movement and to free choice of employment; however, human
trafficking violates these most basic of rights. Finally, the trafficking of humans
for sex is a problem that touches every country in one respect or another.
Victims of sex trafficking are men, women, and children. These victims
are forced through either physical violence or threats of violence to provide
sexual services for the profit of their traffickers. This text detailed sex trafficking
from a global perspective.


av396.1.FISIP/364.15’3/Man/S-1Audio Visual (Catalog)Tersedia

Informasi Detil

Judul Seri
No. Panggil
Penerbit Estover Road, Plymouth PL6 7PY : Surabaya.,
Deskripsi Fisik
978-0-7391-2933-3 (c
Tipe Isi
Tipe Media
Tipe Pembawa
Info Detil Spesifik
Pernyataan Tanggungjawab

Versi lain/terkait

Tidak tersedia versi lain

Lampiran Berkas



Kembali ke sebelumnya